Building a Simple API using Opulence PHP

This tutorial will show you how to code a simple JSON API using Opulence PHP. We will install Opulence’s skeleton project using composer, then create a ‘user’ database entity, and finally we will match CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) to POST, GET, PUT, and DELETE.

Prerequisites: PHP7, Composer, MySQL.

Installing

Create an Opulence project with the following command:

composer create-project opulence/project SimpleApi --prefer-dist 

The default Opulence app name is Project. Using apex, rename it to SimpleApi.

cd SimpleApi
php apex app:rename Project SimpleApi

This command will output:

JSON Config

According to the documentation if a client does not request JSON then HTML will be returned. This is “the right way to do it” but for the sake of this API we always want to return JSON. We can do this by adding the following code to config/http/views.php:

if (!isset($_SERVER['CONTENT_TYPE'])) {
    $_SERVER['CONTENT_TYPE'] = 'application/json';
}

We also want to disable the default Session and Csrf middlewares because REST clients do not (always) work with cookies. Open config/http/middleware.php and comment out:

return [
    CheckMaintenanceMode::class,
//    Session::class,
//    CheckCsrfToken::class
];

Database Config

Out of the box PostgreSQL is the default database driver. To use MySQL change line ~5 in src/SimpleApi/Application/Bootstrappers/Databases/SqlBootstrapper.php from PostgreSQL to:

use Opulence\Databases\Adapters\Pdo\MySql\Driver;

Manually create a MySQL database named simpleapi and modify config/environment/.env.app.php accordingly.

Environment::setVar('DB_HOST', 'localhost');
Environment::setVar('DB_USER', 'root');
Environment::setVar('DB_PASSWORD', 'root');
Environment::setVar('DB_NAME', 'simpleapi');
Environment::setVar('DB_PORT', 3306);

Database Entity

Create a user table with the following columns: [ id (primary), email (unique), firstname (string), lastname (string), age (integer, optional) , country (2 character string) ]

CREATE TABLE `user` (
  `id` int NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
  `email` varchar(255) NOT NULL UNIQUE,
  `firstname` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  `lastname` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  `age` int,
  `country` char(2) NOT NULL
);

Using apex, create a matching entity class named User.

php apex make:entity User

Note: These commands create stubs / empty templates. You must finish the code yourself!

Open the newly created src/SimpleApi/User.php and finish the mutator methods so that the properties match the database table. Implement JsonSerializable too.

<?php
namespace SimpleApi;

use Opulence\Orm\IEntity;

class User implements IEntity, \JsonSerializable
{
    /** @var int */
    private $id;

    /** @var string */
    private $email;

    /** @var string */
    private $firstname;

    /** @var string */
    private $lastname;

    /** @var int|null */
    private $age;

    /** @var string */
    private $country;

    public function getId(): int
    {
        return (int)$this->id;
    }

    public function setId($id): self
    {
        $this->id = $id;

        return $this;
    }

    public function getEmail(): string
    {
        return $this->email;
    }

    public function setEmail($email): self
    {
        $this->email = $email;

        return $this;
    }

    public function getFirstname(): string
    {
        return $this->firstname;
    }

    public function setFirstname($firstname): self
    {
        $this->firstname = $firstname;

        return $this;
    }

    public function getLastname(): string
    {
        return $this->lastname;
    }

    public function setLastname($lastname): self
    {
        $this->lastname = $lastname;

        return $this;
    }

    /**
     * @return int|null
     */
    public function getAge()
    {
        return $this->age;
    }

    public function setAge($age): self
    {
        $this->age = $age;

        return $this;
    }

    public function getCountry(): string
    {
        return $this->country;
    }

    public function setCountry($country): self
    {
        $this->country = $country;

        return $this;
    }

    public function jsonSerialize() : array
    {
        return [
            'id' => (int)$this->getId(),
            'email' => $this->getEmail(),
            'firstname' => $this->getFirstname(),
            'lastname' => $this->getLastname(),
            'age' => is_null($this->getAge()) ? null : (int)$this->getAge(),
            'country' => $this->getCountry(),
        ];
    }
}

Open src/SimpleApi/Application/Bootstrappers/Orm/OrmBootstrapper.php and register an ID generator for \SimpleApi\User

private function registerIdGenerators(IIdGeneratorRegistry $idGeneratorRegistry)
{
    // Register your Id generators for classes that will be managed by the unit of work
    $idGeneratorRegistry->registerIdGenerator(
        \SimpleApi\User::class,
        new \Opulence\Orm\Ids\Generators\IntSequenceIdGenerator('user_id_seq')
    );
}

Database Mapper

Using apex, create a SQL data mapper named User. When prompted pick SQL data mapper and use \SimpleApi\User as the entity.

php apex make:datamapper User

This command will output:

Open the newly created src/SimpleApi/Infrastructure/Orm/User.php and finish the stubs.

<?php
namespace SimpleApi\Infrastructure\Orm;

use Opulence\Orm\DataMappers\SqlDataMapper;
use Opulence\Orm\OrmException;

class User extends SqlDataMapper
{
    /**
     * Adds an entity to the database
     *
     * @param \SimpleApi\User $user The entity to add
     * @throws OrmException Thrown if the entity couldn't be added
     */
    public function add($user)
    {
        $statement = $this->writeConnection->prepare(
            'INSERT INTO user (email, firstname, lastname, age, country)
             VALUES (:email, :firstname, :lastname, :age, :country)'
        );
        $statement->bindValues([
            'email' => $user->getEmail(),
            'firstname' => $user->getFirstname(),
            'lastname' => $user->getLastname(),
            'age' => $user->getAge(),
            'country' => $user->getCountry(),
        ]);
        $statement->execute();
    }

    /**
     * Deletes an entity
     *
     * @param \SimpleApi\User $user The entity to delete
     * @throws OrmException Thrown if the entity couldn't be deleted
     */
    public function delete($user)
    {
        $statement = $this->writeConnection->prepare('DELETE FROM user WHERE id = :id');
        $statement->bindValues([
            'id' => [$user->getId(), \PDO::PARAM_INT]
        ]);
        $statement->execute();
    }

    /**
     * Gets all the entities
     *
     * @return \SimpleApi\User[] The list of all the entities
     */
    public function getAll() : array
    {
        $sql = 'SELECT * FROM user';

        return $this->read($sql, [], self::VALUE_TYPE_ARRAY);
    }

    /**
     * Gets the entity with the input Id
     *
     * @param int|string $id The Id of the entity we're searching for
     * @return \SimpleApi\User The entity with the input Id
     * @throws OrmException Thrown if there was no entity with the input Id
     */
    public function getById($id): \SimpleApi\User
    {
        $sql = 'SELECT * FROM user WHERE id = :id';
        $parameters = [
            'id' => [$id, \PDO::PARAM_INT]
        ];

        return $this->read($sql, $parameters, self::VALUE_TYPE_ENTITY, true);
    }

    /**
     * Saves any changes made to an entity
     *
     * @param \SimpleApi\User $user The entity to save
     * @throws OrmException Thrown if the entity couldn't be saved
     */
    public function update($user)
    {
        $statement = $this->writeConnection->prepare(
            'UPDATE user SET email = :email, firstname = :firstname, lastname = :lastname,
             age = :age, country = :country
             WHERE id = :id'
        );
        $statement->bindValues([
            'email' => $user->getEmail(),
            'firstname' => $user->getFirstname(),
            'lastname' => $user->getLastname(),
            'age' => $user->getAge(),
            'country' => $user->getCountry(),
            'id' => [$user->getId(), \PDO::PARAM_INT]
        ]);
        $statement->execute();
    }

    /**
     * Loads an entity from a hash of data
     *
     * @param array $hash The hash of data to load the entity from
     * @return \SimpleApi\User The entity
     */
    protected function loadEntity(array $hash): \SimpleApi\User
    {
        $entity = new \SimpleApi\User();

        $entity->setId($hash['id']);
        $entity->setEmail($hash['email']);
        $entity->setFirstname($hash['firstname']);
        $entity->setLastname($hash['lastname']);
        $entity->setAge($hash['age']);
        $entity->setCountry($hash['country']);

        return $entity;
    }
}

Controller Creation

Using apex, create a Controller named User. When prompted pick REST controller.

php apex make:controller User

This command will output:

Open the newly created src/SimpleApi/Application/Http/Controllers/User.php and finish the stubs. Type-hint any objects your controller needs in the controller’s constructor. Create a generic repository object for \SimpleApi\User.

<?php
namespace SimpleApi\Application\Http\Controllers;

use Opulence\Http\HttpException;
use Opulence\Http\Responses\JsonResponse;
use Opulence\Http\Responses\Response;
use Opulence\Orm\OrmException;
use Opulence\Orm\Repositories\Repository;
use Opulence\Orm\IUnitOfWork;
use Opulence\Routing\Controller;

class User extends Controller
{
    /** @var \Opulence\Orm\UnitOfWork */
    protected $unitOfWork;

    /** @var Repository */
    protected $repo;

    public function __construct(\SimpleApi\Infrastructure\Orm\User $dataMapper, IUnitOfWork $unitOfWork)
    {
        $this->unitOfWork = $unitOfWork;

        $this->repo = new Repository(
            \SimpleApi\User::class,
            $dataMapper,
            $this->unitOfWork
        );
    }

    /**
     * Creates a entity
     *
     * @return Response The response
     */
    public function create() : Response
    {
        $json = $this->request->getJsonBody();

        $user = new \SimpleApi\User();

        $user
            ->setEmail($json['email'])
            ->setFirstname($json['firstname'])
            ->setLastname($json['lastname'])
            ->setCountry($json['country']);

        if (isset($json['age'])) {
            $user->setAge($json['age']);
        }

        $this->repo->add($user);
        $this->unitOfWork->commit();

        return new JsonResponse($user);
    }

    /**
     * Deletes an entity
     *
     * @param mixed $id The Id of the entity
     * @return Response The response
     */
    public function delete($id) : Response
    {
        $user = $this->repo->getById($id);
        $this->repo->delete($user);
        $this->unitOfWork->commit();

        return new JsonResponse($user, 204);
    }

    /**
     * Shows an entity
     *
     * @param mixed $id The Id of the entity
     * @return Response The response
     * @throws HttpException
     */
    public function show($id) : Response
    {
        try {
            $user = $this->repo->getById($id);
        } catch (OrmException $e) {
            throw new HttpException(404);
        }

        return new JsonResponse($user);
    }

    /**
     * Shows all the entities
     *
     * @return Response The response
     */
    public function showAll() : Response
    {
        $user = $this->repo->getAll();

        return new JsonResponse($user);
    }

    /**
     * Updates an entity
     *
     * @param mixed $id The Id of the entity
     * @return Response The response
     */
    public function update($id) : Response
    {
        $json = $this->request->getJsonBody();

        /** @var \SimpleApi\User $user */
        $user = $this->repo->getById($id);

        if (isset($json['email'])) {
            $user->setEmail($json['email']);
        }
        if (isset($json['firstname'])) {
            $user->setFirstname($json['firstname']);
        }
        if (isset($json['lastname'])) {
            $user->setLastname($json['lastname']);
        }
        if (isset($json['country'])) {
            $user->setCountry($json['country']);
        }
        if (isset($json['age'])) {
            $user->setAge($json['age']);
        }

        $this->unitOfWork->commit();

        return new JsonResponse($user);
    }
}

Open config/http/routes.php and configure CRUD routes to use the controller class.

$router->group(['controllerNamespace' => 'SimpleApi\Application\Http\Controllers'], function (Router $router) {
    $router->group(['path' => '/user'], function (Router $router) {
        $router->get('', 'User@showAll');
        $router->post('', 'User@create');
    });
    $router->group(['path' => '/user/:id'], function (Router $router) {
        $router->get('', 'User@show');
        $router->put('', 'User@update');
        $router->delete('', 'User@delete');
    });
});

Barring any typos you should now have a simple API. To run Opulence locally, use the following command:

php apex app:runlocally

Use a REST client to POST the following JSON to the API:

POST: http://localhost/user

{
    "email": "foo@dev.null",
    "firstname": "Joe",
    "lastname": "Smith",
    "age": 999,
    "country": "JP"
}

Then try:

GET: http://localhost/user
GET: http://localhost/user/1
PUT: http://localhost/user/1
DELETE: http://localhost/user/1 

Got ideas on how to improve validation, error handling, security, or any other Opulence PHP tips? Post in the comments below.

Install PHP7 and Composer on Windows 10

PHP7 is a general purpose scripting language well suited for web development. Composer is the defacto package manager for PHP7. This tutorial will show you how to install PHP7 and Composer on Windows 10 for use in a command prompt.

A common misconception is that you need a web server like IIS, Apache, or Nginx to work with PHP7. In fact, PHP7 has it’s own built in web server that you can invoke at the command prompt. Modern PHP frameworks such as Opulence support this.

Installing PHP7

Download the latest PHP7 (non-thread safe version) zip file from http://windows.php.net/

Extract the contents of the zip file into C:\PHP7

Copy C:\PHP7\php.ini-development to C:\PHP7\php.ini

Open the newly copied C:\PHP7\php.ini in a text editor.

Scroll down to “Directory in which the loadable extensions (modules) reside.” and uncomment: extension_dir = “ext”

Notepad++ is great.

Scroll down to the DLL extensions section and uncomment the extensions you want to use.

My current setup.

Tweak other settings as needed.

Note: Don’t forget to keep your php.ini file in a safe place when you upgrade in the future!

Add C:\PHP7 to the Windows 10 system path environment variable.

Windows 10 has finally improved this interface, yay!

In a command prompt test that the installation is successful by typing php -v

ConEmu is great.

Installing Composer

On my computer I’ve created a C:\Users\dac514\bin directory where I keep miscellaneous executables. This directory is in my user path.

Use a search engine to find a tutorial and do something similar. Optionally install composer in the C:\PHP7 directory you just created as it’s already in your path.

To get composer.phar, drop to a command prompt, cd into your target directory, and run:

php -r "copy('https://getcomposer.org/installer', 'composer-setup.php');"
php composer-setup.php
php -r "unlink('composer-setup.php');"

(Important! Click here for a more secure and up-to-date install snippet.)

Next, create a new composer.bat file alongside the composer.phar file so that Windows 10 can execute it more easily. (Source)

echo @php "%~dp0composer.phar" %*>composer.bat

Test that it’s working by typing composer -V

ConEmu is still great.

How To Study And Pass The PSD-I Assessment From Scrum.org

The Scrum.org Professional Scrum Developer I assessment is a 60 minute time boxed test where you answer 80 multiple choice type questions. It costs $200 to take and the passing score is 85%.

I took the test September 14, 2016 and passed. My Score was 71 points (or 88.8%)

Scrum.org PSD-I Certificate

Here’s how I studied:

Install Recoll.

Create a directory  where you store any studied Scrum.org document. Setup an appropriate indexing strategy so that Recoll search is rebuilt every time you add a new document to your Scrum study folder.

Study the following documents:

Save the above documents into your study folder.

Read posts in the Scrum.org forum.

Once a day, for at least a few weeks, do the SCRUM OPEN, PRODUCT OWNER OPEN, and DEVELOPER OPEN assessments. When you finish an open assessment it will let you print a summary of your results. Save every summary in your study folder.

Keep doing the open assessments until you consistently get 100% every time

Keep doing the open assessments until you’ve seen every possible question.

The day before doing the test, take the time to create a single open assessments master document. Copy, paste (and study) all the information from all the open assessment summaries into the master document. When creating your master document avoid duplicate questions. Having to search through duplicates will slow you down.

Ignore any resource that doesn’t come from Scrum.org

When you’re ready, pay money to do the test, use your Recoll index to search for help when you don’t know an answer.

Good luck.

Spellcheck English + French At The Same Time On Android

On Android you can spellcheck multiple languages by switching to them, on-the-fly, using the space bar:

spellcheck-settings-04

To set up this feature go into settings under “Language & input” then select “Google Keyboard:”

spellcheck-settings-01

Select “Languages:”

spellcheck-settings-02

Disable “Use system language” and select the languages you want to spellcheck against:

spellcheck-settings-03

Merci!

MySQL Dump Full Structure, Partial Data, With Triggers & Routines.

You want to do a MySQL dump. You want the entire structure of the database but you want to exclude some tables because they are too big, have sensitive data, or other reasons. Your MySQL database has triggers, routines, and all that good stuff because it’s 2016.

When I went looking for a solution I read a tutorial that wrongly suggested dumping triggers and schema together in the first step. The problem with this approach is when you import your data, the ON INSERT triggers are executed, and this can lead to primary key conflicts or other weird issues. I learned the hard way.

A better way:

  • Schema first
  • Data next
  • Triggers and routines last
mysqldump --no-data --skip-triggers DATABASE > FILE.sql

mysqldump --no-create-db --no-create-info --skip-triggers --ignore-table=TABLE1--ignore-table=TABLE2 DATABASE >> FILE.sql

mysqldump --no-create-db --no-create-info --no-data  --routines --triggers --skip-opt DATABASE >> FILE.sql

Good times.

Free Online Scrum Training

These Scrum Training Series videos are my favourite. The site also offers a nice Scrum reference card. Choice quote:

Doing Scrum, or Pretending to Do Scrum? Scrum’s relentless reality checks expose dysfunctional constraints in individuals, teams, and organizations. Many people claiming to do Scrum modify the parts that require breaking through organizational impediments and end up robbing themselves of most of the benefits.